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Dementia is not just one disease but it is a combination of brain diseases that result in the gradual decrease in the ability to think and to be able to function daily. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s Disease and normally affects older adults rather than younger ones. Dementia can be split into four stages, which are: mild cognitive impairment (general forgetfulness), mild dementia (memory loss, confusion and difficulty doing certain tasks), moderate dementia (similar to mild dementia but increased) and severe dementia (no ability to communicate and full time care is needed). Dementia is caused when there is damage to the brain cells. The damage of the cells is normally linked to the abnormal build-up of proteins in the brain. It affects people differently depending on what part of the brain is damaged. Other causes that are thought to contribute to dementia are brain injuries, Huntington’s disease, genetics, stress throughout your life and down syndrome.


The symptoms of dementia differ depending on what stage of dementia people have. Some early symptoms, however, include memory loss (repeating yourself, asking the same question), losing things (forgetting where you have put things such as keys, phone etc.), mood changes, personality changes, getting lost in a familiar place, problems communicating (forgetting simple words) and difficulty completing simple and familiar tasks.