An endoscope is a tube-shaped surgical instrument equipped with a light and camera lens in order to view an internal cavity of the body. The use of an endoscope during surgery allows operations to be done through several one-inch incisions to view the involved tissue and operative site with less disturbance to body.

Back surgeons may employ endoscopes when implanting minimally invasive spine fusion systems, interbody cages for spine fusion, and for anterior lumbar interbody fusion.